RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS TREATMENT USING GOLD NANOPARTICLES
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxiridiae, causing lower respiratory tract infections and hospital visits in infants and young children. Today, RSV is known as a global outbreak of the lower respiratory tract disease in infant and young children and a high priority for vaccine development. It is estimated that RSV causes between 50,000 and 125,000 hospitalizations of children < 2 years of age and up to 200,000 deaths each year in the world. Here, we developed an innovative treatment model with different attributes from other conventional anti-viral approaches that have been reported before. In our first strategy, the main objective was to provide experimental evidence for the anti-RSV activity of GNPs and to determine the importance of the morphology on the functionality of the particles. Our results showed that GNRs prevents the RSV infections more than GNSs due to the positively charged elongated surfaces and hydrophobic nature of the particles. In our second project, we applied gold nanorods (GNRs) in photothermal therapy to inhibit the pathogenesis of RSV. Rod shape provides an excellent electrodynamic and multiple electron oscillations named as a surface plasmin resonance (SPR). The process of SPR on the surface of GNRs results in the conversion of photonic energy to thermal that has been use to cure cancer. We successfully applied this mechanism to RSV treatment and inhibited virus replication. Our third and last project is based on gene silencing process, in which we applied the GNSs as delivery agents for small interfering RNA (siRNA). In the process of gene silencing, we temporarily blocked rotary activity of the c subunits on V-ATPase thus to prevent the binding of RSF F protein to specific small GTP proteins, such as Cdc42, RhoA and Rac 1 proteins. Uncertainties associated with efficacy of the treatment was evaluated, analyzed and confirmed using different assays, such as ELISA, MTT, ELI-Spot, immunofluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy.