PHA 303 Tutorials

last modified 2018-09-08T11:29:12-04:00
References & Style Guides

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Reference Requirements

References serve three distinct purposes:

1) documentation

2) acknowledgement

3) directing readers to additional resources

Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy of references within their work, therefore it is imperative that primary sources are always consulted.

Do not cite a source that you have not examined.

References must include certain data to ensure that the data can be identified and retrieved. Please refer to section 3.4 (p. 42) of the AMA Manual of Style to view the minimum acceptable data for references.

The AMA style divides references into bibliographic groups using a period. Each period separates bibliographic groups, ie. author information, title, publisher information, etc., and sets a sequence of bibligraphic elements. Bibliographic elements refers to the different items within each bibliographic group. Bibliographic elements are differentiated with three different punctuation marks.

Example: Author(s). Article title. Journal name. Year; vol (issue no.):pages.doi.

Use a comma  if items are subelements or closely related elements. For example, up to six author names are separated by comma within the author bibliographic group.

Use a semicolon to separate different types of elements within a bibliographic group. For example, within the publisher bibliographic group, a semicolon is used between the publisher's name and the copyright year. A semicolon is also used to differentiate between logically related elements within a bibliographic group. A semicolon is used before volume identification data.

Use a colon before the publisher's name, between the title and subtitle and after a connecting or explanatory phrase such as Presented at: or Quoted by: or Cited by:.

For additional information, please Section 3.1 (p. 40-41) of the AMA Manual of Style (2007). 

How to cite an e-book in AMA style

Follow the format for a regular› book, and then add the URL and “Accessed” date at the end.


Riordan-Eva P, Cunningham ET.  Vaughan & Asbury's General Ophthalmology.  18th ed.  New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.  Accessed January 4, 2016.


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