Shelf 3: War and Rebellion
Many armies came to conquer the region known as Canaan at the end of the Bronze Age, then called Philistia, Israel, and Judah in the Iron Age, and finally Galilee (north), Judea (south), and Palestine (all) under the Romans. Thutmose, Joshua, Ashurbanipal, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander, and Pompey were among the ‘Greats’ who won victory in the Holy land. Augustus claimed it for Rome from Antony and Cleopatra in 30 BC, and accepted the Hellenistic Herodian dynasty (37 BC – 100 AD) instead of the Maccabees (168 BC – 40 BC) as rulers. Thus the life of Jesus spanned the reigns of the Herod the Great and his son Herod Antipas. Several Jewish Revolts later broke out whenever Roman emporers attempted to enforce their state worship in Jerusalem. Each time, legions were brought in to occupy the land and eradicate the resistance movement. Eventually all Jews were removed from Judea, a completion of the Diaspora that had begun under Hellenistic monarchs.